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Vue Js Composition API and Component Reusability

February 3, 2022

Vue 3 Composition API provides a new approach to organizing data models and functions. Previous options of API don’t provide features to organize models or business logic in a logical manner. Composition API provides a great feature to organize codes, in a more reusable manner and it improves the readability of big components.

Option API distributes codes among data block, computed blocks methods, and watch functions. Code has been spread in all the places there is no logical fragmentation. That structure is what makes it difficult to understand and maintain a complex component.

However, when we are working with bigger code blocks it’s convenient to fragment code blocks based on logical concerns. It would be much nicer if we could collocate code related to the same logical concern. And this is exactly what the Composition API enables us to do.

Vue - Composition API

The Problem

If you have experience with Vue Js 2, you must have seen the Option API, where the codes aren’t fragmented in a logical manner based on its functionality. A component might look like this. If we apply different color codes for code fragments according to the Vue Composition API RFC showing how code fragments will be.

Vue - color codes

How Composition API resolves

Here, the goal is to fragment codes based on their feature / logical functionality. Using Composition API, we can extract this logic and place it in separate files. And we can consume those inside the Setup method in Composition API. The separation of options obscures the underlying logical concerns. In addition, when working on a single logical concern, we have to constantly “jump” around option blocks for the relevant code

Composition API Using Nuxt Js

Nuxt Js provide Composition function using Nuxt Composition API. @nuxtjs/composition-api module that brings first-class Composition API support to Nuxt. The @nuxtjs/composition-api package is a wrapper over a @vue/composition-api plugin which means that along with Nuxt-specific utilities it contains all “standard” Composition API functions like ref or computed.

Before starting the feature of the Composition, first, we will look into how Nuxt Composition API addons facilities to us to work with Composition in Nuxt Project. To enable Composition in Nuxt project we have to setup NuxtJs Composition API.

The installation is straightforward, just like with every other Nuxt module. First, we have to install the package:

npm install @nuxtjs/composition-api –save

And register the module in our nuxt.config.js

{ buildModules: ['@nuxtjs/composition-api' ] }

The module is registering @vue/composition-api plugin under the hood so we can immediately use its features in our project without any additional code.


The @nuxtjs/composition-api provide SSR capabilities within Composition.

UseFetch which is a Composition API wrapper for a well-known Nuxt fetch that is commonly used to fetch asynchronous data (both on a server and client-side)

It does two things:

It makes sure that the asynchronous function that passed as its argument resolved. Then the result conveyed to the client-side through the window. NUXT object and picked up by your client-side code as its initial state.

It prevents the client-side execution if navigation has been made on a server-side. Because of that, we are not performing unnecessary network calls if we already have the data from the server-side fetch.

To make use of useFetch in our composable we just need to wrap it around our asynchronous code:

Vue - asynchronous code

Using Nuxt Context in your composable

Among data-related server capabilities, Nuxt composition API is delivering a set of composable to interact with other composable APIs. One of the most helpful features is the use of Context. As represented in the name, it facilitates us to access Nuxt context inside our composable. We can use this instance to access router, store, and properties via Nuxt Modules.

In Vue 3 Composition, Vue Context is accessible inside the Setup() method only. It’s not allowed to accessed outside. Therefore, if we want to access the Context in different Compose files, we have to pass context as a parameter to the specific file. With the help of the use Context () method we can access Context Object inside any Composition API.

How to Modularize Components

Let’s see how we can organize our component by feature and reuse our code across other components. In this below example it’s a Student Portal that has three main feature areas; those are Course Enrolment, Showing Progress Report, Showing Student Profile. If we see the functionality of the student portal, we can clearly identify that it has three modules as follows.

  1. Enrollment
  2. Progress Report
  3. Student Profile

Let’s see how we can organize the code using Composition API.

Modularize Components

Here Enrollment, Progress Report, and Student Profile moved to different files. Its related fields and methods are also placed in the same file. Therefore, it’s more human-readable and meantime maintainable. And we can use the above compose section anywhere in our application as used on this page.

Building Reusable UI Vue Component

There are two approaches available to build reusable components in the Vue application. Both have their strength and weakness. Those are using Property and using Slot. We have to select the correct approach based on the needs.

Using Props

For example, there is an Address Component that used to capture the address of the student. The same component has been used to capture local addresses and foreign addresses as well. So based on the country, the address fields should changed. This has been achieved using Props for the component. The component has multiple props to change the behaviour of the component.


This approach is suitable for small components. If the number of props increases, it’s difficult to manage the component because we are introducing logic inside the component to maintain the state. It’s difficult to understand.

To handle this scenario with Vue 2.6 Slot directive has been introduced. Through this, we can distribute the content to the component. So rather than keeping the HTML content in a component and changing the behaviour based on the props. We can set the HTML content to the component from the outside.

Slot Directive

So, we understand the whole concept from the definition of slots it’s about making components reusable. Now, we’re going to dive in with some examples showcasing Vue slots and talk about how to make use of them.

We will take the same example and see how we can use Slot instead of Props.

Vue - Slot directive

You can notice in the above picture that we have removed Drop down and Input Control and we have placed <slot> tag. This is going to work as a placeholder and when we are using this component we have to define the HTML Content for this Slot as given below.

HTML Content

Through this, we can distribute the content to outside of the component. Therefore, we are able to control the component behaviour from the outside.


We have seen how we can use Nuxt Composition API to fragment code in a logical manner and how we can reuse them among the components. Meantime we can create reusable UI Components using Slot directives. The goal of the Composition API is to increase readability and facilitate us to create components in a more reusable manner.

Authored by Deepakumar Ganeshamany @ BISTEC Global

Source Code: https://github.com/bistecglobal/VueCompositionAndComponents

Agile Testing: It’s a new age of testing

December 7, 2021

Building software can be like creating a work of art sometimes. It requires creativity in design, and plenty of craftsmanship to do well. However, over the years, the methods of testing have evolved greatly, and this short blurb focuses on one of the current favorites, the “𝐀𝐠𝐢𝐥𝐞 𝐭𝐞𝐬𝐭𝐢𝐧𝐠” methodology.

As you probably know, Testing is not a phase, but an ongoing activity. all stakeholders including the developers are part of the agile testing method, which results in shortened feedback time. In agile software development in itself driven by testing from the early sprints itself.

“Pair testing” is a notable feature in today’s Agile testing method, where a member of the QA team works closely with a member of the development team to iron out the defects found during each sprint. These informal pairs work together as and when required, speeding up the debugging process effectively. To further strengthen its effectiveness, the team collaborates with the end-user to gather feedback after the completion of each sprint cycle.

Among the key benefits of the “whole-team approach” to product development are the enhanced communication and collaboration within the team, the enabling and best use of the various skillsets that are found within the team for the benefit of the project, and perhaps most importantly, making quality the responsibility of every member of the team.

At the best, Agile development is robust and proactive. Agile testing is robust and energetic the relatively mundane, predictable modules that need testing can easily automated. These include the common regression tests, unit tests, high traffic pages, cross-browser tests, and data-driven tests.

However, it is an important responsibility of the QA team to effectively prioritize the tests that can automated while those such as usability tests, one-off tests, testing the brand new features, and exploratory tests should not automated as they are specific in nature and cannot be reliably carried out by a machine.

These prioritized automated tests, then used by both the development as well as the QA teams. In addition, the QA team enhances the quality of the delivery by implementing performance tests and security tests as they see fit. At times, these tests carried out by specialized members of the QA team.

In the meantime, unit testing generally carried out exclusively by the development team and the responsibility of the entire product does not lie with the developer or the QAE, but with each and every member of the team. Along with their formal expertise, each team member brings in his or her own individual strengths to the table; all of which efficiently used to achieve the common goal of a perfect software product that can implemented at the customer site.

Most importantly, working in collaboration, instead of doing so in rigid isolation, brings about the best in the whole team, in record time. The active participation of a representative from the customer ensures that there are no miscommunications between requirements and products. Good communication among all, from the inception to the completion of the project, ensures that much time and money saved and a great piece of software created.

Authored by Dhara Jayasinghe @ BISTEC Global

Calculating Employee Turnover in DAX- In and Out

September 21, 2021

Employee turnover is a term that is widely used in HR analysis. Even though I am not an HR Professional, I know that people define Employee turnover differently.

And I’m going to go with the formula that is frequently found on the internet. (I’m pretty sure that if you learn this one, any other turnover formula will be easier to calculate using DAX 😉)

To start your employee turnover calculation, you should divide the total number of employees left during the given period by your average number of employees in the given period. Then, times the total by 100.

This formula seems pretty easy, right? Even so, calculating this in Power BI is a bit tricky.

Now roll up your sleeves because we are gonna do some serious DAX!😎

The only data we have with us to calculate the employee turnover are Employee ID/Name, Date of Appointment, and Date of Resignation (Whatever you call it in your organization)

To make everything easier, I went step by step breaking down the numerator and the denominator until the only pieces that left are the above data that I have.

I’ll explain using the DAX code itself.

Creating a Date Table

The most important thing that you should have first is the Date Table. Believe me! It is a lifesaver! ❤️ You can simply use the CALENDARAUTO() function to create a Date Table. (There are some other functions too if you want to try them out.)

You’ll need the date table to refer to Employee start date(Date of Appointment) and Employee end date(Date of resignation).https://www.linkedin.com/embeds/publishingEmbed.html?articleId=7641001261280701347

So I am using an Employee Table which consists of Employee ID, Employee Name, Start Date, End Date, and other HR-related data.

Now let’s discuss how we can calculate turnover per month. You can tweak the code a bit to make it annual.

Make sure to add a column that calculates the Month and Year.

Defining Variables

First things first, defining the variables! Put it simply, you need two main variables which you will be used to create other variables.

  • Month Start Date: Calculates the first day of the month

var MonthStartDate = STARTOFMONTH(‘Date'[Date])

  • Month End Date: Calculates the last day of the month

var MonthEndDate = ENDOFMONTH(‘Date'[Date])

Calculating Number of Employees Left During the Month

It’s time to get your hands dirty!

Now that you have Month Start Date and Month End Date in your hands, use the following code to calculate the number of employees during the month.

No alt text provided for this image

💡 You can use Start Date instead of End Date to calculate the number of employees joined during the month. (If you need it in another measure)

Calculating Average Employees in the Month

Here’s the tricky part!

You know that Average Employees in a period is calculated by dividing the sum of Employees as at the beginning of the month and Employees as at the end of the month by 2.

So I calculated these two separately.

Let’s talk about how we can calculate the number of employees at the beginning of the month. And you’ll be able to figure out the second by yourself.

Here’s what I did. I calculated ALL the employees joined until the beginning of the month. Then ALL the employees left until the beginning of the month. And got the difference!

No alt text provided for this image

Done? There you go!

You can do the same thing to calculate the number of employees as at the end of the month.

Calculating Employee Turnover per Month

Now you have all the ingredients. You cut and chopped and mixed it well. Now go! Bake it in the oven. 🤪

Here’s the recipe again, in a nutshell!

No alt text provided for this image

TaDa!!!!!! Now you can use the Month and Year from the Date table and the Employee Turnover from the Employee table in a visualization!

Pretty dope right? 😌

Authored by Maneesha Wickramasinghe @ BISTEC Global

Intelligent Chatbot on Azure

June 19, 2021

Business Problem

Recently one of our customers in Australia came to us to solve a problem yet they were facing in the support department. They still receive a lot of support requests daily. The solutions for most of these requests are already available in the user manuals, support site, and other materials to which the customers have access. Since many of these requests are easy to fix, it’s a struggle to invoice the customers properly. Also, a lot of support staff is needed to meet the demand. Our client wanted us to come up with a solution to this problem.

We looked at the following parameters to suggest a solution.

The channels of support request

The volume of resources (support documents)

The channels of support requests.

  • Microsoft Teams
  • Help desk system
  • Email requests

The volume of the resources

  • Support site
  • User manuals
  • Q&A site

Based on these facts we decided to organize the resources in a manner that a customer would be able to find out the answers using one of the above-mentioned mediums without having to contact the support staff.

Proposed Solution

We proposed an intelligent Chat-Bot that will be deployed on Microsoft Teams and in their Help Desk system. So, the customers would first chat with the bot and the bot would analyze the available resources for possible solutions. However if the Chat-Bot failed to respond positively then, it would create a support ticket and assign it to support staff.


We then looked at the tools that we can use to develop our Chat-Bot. Furthermore there are plenty of resources out there but, we felt the suite of tools provided by Microsoft are more reliable and easy to use. Microsoft has invested a lot in AI and Natural language processing and has come up with several tools that are ideal to build an intelligent Chat-Bot. Also, it’s easy to test and deploy these tools because of the integration with Azure.

QnA service

QnA service extracts question and answer pairs from the content that you upload. The content can be uploaded as URLs, PDFs, Excel files, SharePoint documents, and many more.

Adaptive cards

Adaptive Card is an open-source toolset that helps apps and services exchange rich snippets of native UI.

Microsoft Teams

Microsoft Teams is a unified communications platform that combines persistent workplace chat, video meetings, file storage, and application integration.

Azure Cosmos DB

Azure Cosmos DB is Microsoft’s globally distributed, multi-model database service. With a click of a button, Cosmos DB enables you to elastically and independently scale throughput and storage across any number of Azure regions worldwide.

Chat Bot Behavior

The ChatBot uses QnA service to query the proposed answers for customer queries. We have used Cosmos DB to store the chat session and related data. It’s deployed to Microsoft Teams as a plugin and is available on the support site as a widget.

Generally speaking, once a user enters the chat room in Microsoft Teams he would be initiating a chat with the Bot. The rest of the flow is as follows,

  • A customer initiates a chat with the bot in Microsoft Teams
  • The customer is greeted and shown a welcome card asking for the name and email address
  • Customer types in his question
  • Chat-Bot responds with an answer or more options to fine-tune the response
  • A customer gives feedback on the answers
  • If Chat-Bot is unable to find the best answer then, A feedback form is displayed
  • A customer fills in the feedback form
  • Chat-Bot creates a support ticket with all the information
  • Send the link to the customer


We first created the repository using all the documents, manuals, and URLs. The QnA service allows us to import these different types of resources and generates question and answer pairs. Also, we can extract multipart answers as well so that when a customer asks a question it will be able to refine the answers by giving options.

QnA Maker

We first set up the knowledge base in the QnA maker. Go to https://www.qnamaker.ai/ and click on Create a knowledge base. You must go through 5 steps to set up the knowledge base.

  • Create QnA service in Microsoft Azure
  • Connect your QnA service to KB
  • Name your KB
  • Populate your KB
  • Create your KB
  • Publish your KB

Once the QnA maker is set up it gives us an interactive window to test the chat. Also, we can build a tool to train our Bot using the Train API. In the process of setting up QnA, we need to set up a QnA service in Azure as well. This is an app service where the Bot deployed and hosted.

Cosmos DB

Go to the Azure dashboard and set up Cosmos DB instance.


Bot app is a .Net Core Web API project. Hence, it has the same structure as a Web API Project. The Bot client communicates using JSON.

The request received by the BotController and passed over to Microsoft.Bot.Builder.IBot instance. This configuration added in the startup.cs as follows,

services.AddTransient<​IBot, QnABot.Bots.QnABot>();

The IBot instance has three delegates,

  • OnMembersAddedAsync
  • OnTurnAsync
  • OnMessageActivityAsync


This delegate triggered when a new chat window is created. This is the delegate we use to send a welcome notification to the user.


When implemented in a bot, handles an incoming activity.


This is the delegate that is triggered when a message is sent by the client to the bot.

In our application, we identified 4 chat states which are,

  • User-information
  • Chat-information
  • User-feedback
  • Support-ticket


This is the initial state. User information is when we capture the user’s name and email and show a welcome message.


Chat information is when we capture user’s requests and send the data to the QnA service. The QnA service would return either response or prompts. This goes on until the user receives the answer he is looking for or he decides to create a support ticket.


User feedback when we capture whether the user’s request answered properly or whether a support ticket needs to be created. When the support ticket created we log the entire chat history in the ticket.


The support ticket is the step of creating a support ticket in the ticketing system( https://www.servicenow.com/) based on user feedback.

Source Code

Source code can be downloaded from here. Once you download the source code you should do the following.

  • Take a copy of appsettings_dev.json
  • Rename appsettings_dev.json to appsettings.json

#Chatbots #Azure #Luis #Microsoft Bot Framework

Authored by Pragash Rajarathnam @ BISTEC Global

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