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Blog Category: Quality Assurance

CIA Triad of Security – Why does it matter?

November 23, 2022

The CIA triad is a high-level checklist to evaluate security procedures. It is a vital model used to assess the risks, threats, and vulnerabilities of the system.

The CIA triad, also known as the AIC triad, is a benchmark model to assess Information Security. It guides security professionals in protecting any asset that is valuable for running a business.   

Security testing should start from the requirement phase in the Software development lifecycle, and it should be integrated into every phase in SDLC.

CIA triad is helpful in identifying the information to be protected and in defining security requirements needed for an application.

CIA Triad stands for Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability.

CIA Triad

1. Confidentiality

Confidentiality ensures that the system or data is exposed to the right users. This could be ensured by having the following four security measures in an application. They are Identification, Authentication, Authorization, and Encryption.

The confidentiality of an application is assessed by knowing whether the sensitive information in a system is disclosed to unauthorized users. The sensitivity of data is a measure of its importance. The owner of the data decides the sensitivity measure of the data.

2. Integrity

Integrity ensures that the data is reliable. The system or data should be accurate, complete, and consistent.

The integrity of the data could be ensured by having proper security measures in our system. Some of them are Hashing, User access controls, Version control, Backup and recovery procedures, Error checking, and Data validation.

The integrity of the data is measured using a factor called the baseline. The baseline is the measure of the current state of the data. The goal of integrity is to preserve the baseline throughout the transaction.

3. Availability

The data or system should be available to the users when and wherever it’s needed. The availability of the application could be ensured by using Hardware maintenance, Software patching/upgrading, Load balancing, and Fault tolerance.

Appropriate levels of availability should be provided based on the criticality of the data. Criticality is the measure of the dependency of a system on data to perform its operation.


CIA triad helps in understanding and prioritizing the severity of a vulnerability in an application. Neglecting the CIA triad makes the application vulnerable to Interruption, Interception, Modification, or Fabrication class of attack.

CIA serves as a yardstick to evaluate the security of an application. If CIA triad standards were met, then the security of that system would be stronger and better equipped to handle threats.

Is CIA Triad enough for Information Security? – No, but it covers most of the security loopholes in an application.

Authored by Shamphavi Shanmugasundram @ BISTEC Global

Agile Testing: It’s a new age of testing

December 7, 2021

Building software can be like creating a work of art sometimes. It requires creativity in design, and plenty of craftsmanship to do well. However, over the years, the methods of testing have evolved greatly, and this short blurb focuses on one of the current favorites, the “𝐀𝐠𝐢𝐥𝐞 𝐭𝐞𝐬𝐭𝐢𝐧𝐠” methodology.

As you probably know, Testing is not a phase, but an ongoing activity. all stakeholders including the developers are part of the agile testing method, which results in shortened feedback time. In agile software development in itself driven by testing from the early sprints itself.

“Pair testing” is a notable feature in today’s Agile testing method, where a member of the QA team works closely with a member of the development team to iron out the defects found during each sprint. These informal pairs work together as and when required, speeding up the debugging process effectively. To further strengthen its effectiveness, the team collaborates with the end-user to gather feedback after the completion of each sprint cycle.

Among the key benefits of the “whole-team approach” to product development are the enhanced communication and collaboration within the team, the enabling and best use of the various skillsets that are found within the team for the benefit of the project, and perhaps most importantly, making quality the responsibility of every member of the team.

At the best, Agile development is robust and proactive. Agile testing is robust and energetic the relatively mundane, predictable modules that need testing can easily automated. These include the common regression tests, unit tests, high traffic pages, cross-browser tests, and data-driven tests.

However, it is an important responsibility of the QA team to effectively prioritize the tests that can automated while those such as usability tests, one-off tests, testing the brand new features, and exploratory tests should not automated as they are specific in nature and cannot be reliably carried out by a machine.

These prioritized automated tests, then used by both the development as well as the QA teams. In addition, the QA team enhances the quality of the delivery by implementing performance tests and security tests as they see fit. At times, these tests carried out by specialized members of the QA team.

In the meantime, unit testing generally carried out exclusively by the development team and the responsibility of the entire product does not lie with the developer or the QAE, but with each and every member of the team. Along with their formal expertise, each team member brings in his or her own individual strengths to the table; all of which efficiently used to achieve the common goal of a perfect software product that can implemented at the customer site.

Most importantly, working in collaboration, instead of doing so in rigid isolation, brings about the best in the whole team, in record time. The active participation of a representative from the customer ensures that there are no miscommunications between requirements and products. Good communication among all, from the inception to the completion of the project, ensures that much time and money saved and a great piece of software created.

Authored by Dhara Jayasinghe @ BISTEC Global

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